SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION,
SCHOOL YEAR ENDING- DEC. 31, 1888.
SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.
Si •i'eihxtesijest of Public Instruction*
TAt.LAttA.sssB, Fla., Dec. 31st, 1888.
To Ilia Excellency, Edward A. Perry, Governor of Florida :
Sik : — In accordance with the requirements of the law, I have
the honor to render my report of the work of the Department
of Education for the year ending Dee. 81st, 1888.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
Yonr obedient servant,
ALBERT J. RUSSELL,
State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
The timers past, when it was necessary for the officer in
charge of the great interests of popular education to feel the
necessity of either argument or persuasion, to induce the peo-
ple generally to avail themselves of the inestimable privilege
of the public school.
Every county in the State is now thoroughly organized, and
in almost every settlement or neighborhood in the counties there
is a school organized and operated, the door of which is wide
open to every child, schools for both the white and negro chil-
drcr>, and over seventy-two per cent of the children as enumer-
ated in the school census of 1888, are in attendance upon them,
and are being educated in the common school branches,
Illitiracy is being rapidly banished from the State, as the
older freedmen and their coeval family connections pass out of
life, and their children are receiving the benefits of ihe school,
while the children of the white population, specially of the
poorer laboring classes are very largely in attendance upon
them. The number of schools are being increased from year to
year, as the demand of our ever increasing population requires,
and our far stretching forests and plains are giving way to
homes of settlers, anil heing transformed into orange groves,
fruit orchards, or waving fields of cane or fleecy Met, and the
tobacco plant. School trustees, parents and guardians and
teachers join Heartily with school officers in their efforts to im-
prove methods in teaching, and in making the school room a
place where nut only the mind, but the heart and hands may
be trained into practical, useful, and noble manhood and wo-
manhood, training the mind, the affections and the musele up
into a full roundness.
Notwithstanding xll this may Ik- truthfully said of our school
work, there is much yet to be done on the line of development ;
we want, better equipment, appliances, facilities in every school
room. I am glad to note that many counties are awake to the
importance .of these essentials, arid globes, wall maps, charts of
various kinds, simple philosophical instruments for intellectual
diveribemeut and practical illustration of lessons studied, are
now supplied, and it may be IV-rvi-ui 1 y hoped that every school
in the Stale, will before very long, however humble or small the
neighborhood, be thus supplied ; then the crudest log house
school room will in its interior be transformed into u place of
profound interest and delight lo every child, and many, many
parents, will look u[ new help in the new methods of train-
ing their children with approval and sdmiiation. I feel I cannot
too strongly urge the supply of these very necessary helps, from
time to time as the means at their command will warrant, upon
the Boards of Public Instruction and the County Superin-
tendents of the various counties.
The State Institutions arc also in a flourishing condition, and
are doing a noble work for the Stale. The State Normal Col-
lege lor th« training of while teachers, located at DeFuniak
Springs, Walton county, though but in its second year, has en-
rolled sixty students, young men and women, who are being
prepared and trained to enter the school room as teachers of
the children ot the State, aud are making great progress. The
course of study in this college consists of twoyearB, embracing
a study of methods, organization, and discipline, and graduat-
ing at the expiration of the second year, when' the graduate will
receive io addition to a diploma a first class certificate, which
will be permanent.
Ad academic course is also arranged for those in whose cases
it may be necessary in order to qualify them to take the Nor-
mal course. This course is designed to finish or complete such
preparation as may have beeD received in other schools, and to
supply whatever deficiencies there may be in the preparation
of any student entering the college. Tuition in this college is
-entirely free of any charge.
The same may be said of the college for the training of col-
ored teachers located at Tallahassee, except that the number
of students in attendance has not been quite as large, fifty-
two being the number enrolled and in attendance. The same
course of study, the same opportunity for academic instruction
and study as in the college for the white teachers is provided
for the colored teachers ; indeed, it has been seen that there
lias been much more need of this academic preparation for the
colored pupils than for the white, and it is believed it is a re-
sult of not having properly trained teachers in all the colored
schools in the State. This it is hoped will be corrected by the
work of this Normal school. I refer you to the reports of their
respective Presidents, Prof. Felkel and Prof. Tucker, (colored):
1)kFu_\*iak Spcisgs, Fta., Dec. 30, 1888,
To the Honorable State Board of Education :
Gextlbmex : — I beg to submit the following report of the
State Normal College for white students, located at this place,
t< ir the year ending June 6th, 1S8H. The institution was open-
ed on the first Monday in October last, with an enrollment of
sixteen pupils, which number increased From week to week un-
til fifty-seven names were upon our register. In our organi-
zation we found it necessary to form the etriderts into two di-
visions. This we did first, in order to meet '.be umqiml ad-
vancement of the pupils, and secondly, that the classes might
be small enough io allow the instructors to individualize as
much as possible io their teaching. The latter reason men-
tioned we deem an essential point in all successful school-room
work, hecce it should be emphasized in normal school instruc-
As might have been expected in the first year of an institu-
tion's existence, considerable time had to be spent in prepara-
tory work, yet, notwithstanding this, the students io the main
have made considerable progress, and we feel assured that
those who entered the advanced class will be able to complete
the course prescribed within the two years.
The pupils are almost, without exception, earnest and indus-
trious workers, have conducted themselves with dignity and
self-respect, s.nd, at all times, shown a willingness lo yield t"
the direction of the faculty. Among them there is excellent
material for teachers, and 1 am sure the State wilt be compen-
sated through the work they will render in the scihool-room.
•Nor will the State have to wait until the expiration of two
years to get any return. Eleven of the students have taken
schools in this and other counties for the ensuing summer, and
will carry into their work the advanced methods and ideft*
which we have endeavored to inculcate. Thus it will be seen
that this is not a normal school in name only, but u a mattnr
of fact is touching and influencing directly the teachers of the
In December last the young men of the school org&aixed :i
debating and literary society, a feature ol the institution that
has helped to eive it interest and popularity. From the be-
ginning the members have taken great pride in the weekly ex-
ercises, and have seemed fully alive to the advantages they
offered. The faculty have had general oversight and direction
of the association, and we have been pleased to notice the
steady improvement in the character of its work. Next year
steps will be taken to form a society for the young ladies con-
nected with the college.
In conclusion, I will stale that I have been aided very great-
ly in making the school what it is by the efficiency t»f my as-
sistants. Prof. Graham is a young man of rare qualities, and
as a teacher gave unqualified satisfaction, the best evidence of
which is that not a word of complaint was heard against him
from the- students. Miss Outerbridge, my second assistant,
though wanting in some extent in adaptation and judgment, has
good teaching qualities, and will undoubtedly improve with
experience. I recommend them both for re-electioD.
Respectfully submitted, II. N. Fklkel,
Tallahassee, Fla., Dec. 24, 1888.
Man, A. J. Russell, State Supt. Public Instruction, Tallahas-
see, Fla. :
Sib: — I have the honor to make the following report of tbe
work of the State Normal College, for colored students, located
in this city.
Agreeably to the requirements of the Constitution, the last
General Assembly passed an act creating the above named
institution, in which a corps of teachers is to be trained who
will supply the wants of the colored schools of the State.
Teaching, like any other art, to be successfully prosecuted,
mast have its workers specially trained. Much credit is due
the teachers who have been, and are still employed in oar
common schools; it cannot, however, detract from their merits
to say that, owing to lack of systematic training for their
work, they are not as thorongh and efficient as the needs of
their pupils demand.
The establishment of this college is therefore a wise, politic
stroke of statesmanship, from an economic consideration, if
from no other. The thousands of dollars now annually expen-
ded in compensation to poorly equipped teachers will, it is to
be hoped, in a few years be more judiciously paid to such as
will be able to give the State a fair equivalent in their ability
to imparl instruction by the most approved modern methods.
The race for whom this college has been established, being
keenly alive to the wants sought to be filled by it, have em-
braced with readiness the opportunities it offers.
They look to this institution, not only for a superior class
of teachers, but for better educated persons than such as the
limited course of study in the common schools can produce.
In so far as their scanty means have enabled them to send their
children hither, they have within the past year shown abund-
ant proof of their appreciation of the Normal College.
The late terrible scourge which afflicted the metropolis of
the State ard places more or less dependent on its commercial
life, has sensibly affected our attendance thus far this session ;
we however hope that as we recede from the effects and mem-
ory of that fearful visitation, the College will spring np with
greater activity to the accomplishment of its mission.
The first session, which began the first Monday in October
of the year last past, opened with fifteen matriculates. At the
close "of it the record showed an enrollment of fifty -two, with
thirty-five in average attendance. The students ha^e attained
to a very commendable scholarship.
The faculty aim not at show and brilliancy, bnt thoroughness;
this result, 1 feel sure, will in time be had, to the manifest ad-
vantage of the yonth who are to come under the tuition of the
teachers to go forth from the Normal College.
That students may be drawn to the institution from all parts
of the State without misgivings on the part of patrons relative
to their habits and morals while away from home, and also to
enable indigent students to partly defray their expenses by
manual labor, the College should be removed into the country
and located on about a thirty acre piece of land, and supplied
with dormitory buildings. The happy return from such an
outlay would soon justify the wisdom of the act.
T. Db S. Tuck be,
President of the State Normal College
for Colored Students.
BLIND AND DEAF MOTE INSTITUTE.
The Institute for the blind and deaf mute youth between the
ages of 6 and 21 years, located at St. Augustine, St. Johns
county, is intended to take the place, to these deeply afflicted
youth, of the public echool to their more fortunate fellows,
founded in 1884. The buildings erected during that year, the
Institute was not ready to receive pupils until December of
that year, and is therefore comparatively young and new, and
yet it is a source of great pleasure to me to report that an ex-
traordinary work has been done. Twenty-five of these unfor-
tunate ones have been in attendance, and have rapidly advanced
in the acquirement of knowledge by a method peculiar to the
admirable teachers employed in our Institute. Several of the
younger pupils have been taught to articulate and speak word?,
and some to read quite intelligibly.
Tuition, board and clothes are all free in this institution to
those unable to pay, tuition being absolutely free to all such
youth of the State.
It is designed to instruct these children in the knowledge of
some useful and profitable trades-work, and the girls in house-
wifery* and the duties of the home. Arrangements are now
being made to perfect this department of instruction, while
the Principal j Prof. Park Terrill, has been giving instruction in
For fuller information, the needs of the institution, and
many important suggestions, I beg to refer you to his report
for the years 1887-1888, on another page.
To the Board of Managers of the Florida Blind and Deaf
Mute Institute :
Gentlemen:- -As the year closc-B it again becomes my duty
and pleasure to report to you tbe condition of our school, and
the progress made during the past two year*.
The number of pupils in attendance during the period cov-
ered by this report was twenty-five— thirteen white and twelve
colored. Fifteen were boys and ten were girls. Of the blind
there were six, and of the deaf nineteen, making a total in-
crease of ten over the previous two years.
The average attendance the past year was twenty three, an
increase of thirteen, or more than double the average attend-
ance of former years.
IX THE SCHOOLROOM.
The progress made by the pupils in their studies has been
very satisfactory, and evidences unusual faithfulness on the
part of teachers in their work. The system used in >hc in-
struction of the deaf differs somewhat from that employed in
other schools for this class, and it affords me no little gratifi-
cation to be able to 'say that, after several years' trial, whether
it be owing to the merits of the system or to the intelligent
devotion of the instructors*, the results have fully met my most
sanguine expectations. Yet better work can he done, and will
be, when the school is fully equipped with needed apparatus,
and sufficient teachers employed to give to each cla-s the time
and attention it should have.
Our pupils have passed two pleasaut (is well as profitable
years. Visitors have quite generally remarked that they had
never seen such happy children.
Iu addition to the regular schoolroom work, the boys have
been instructed in gardening and such other out of door work
as they could perform.
The s^iris have been instructed in pliiin sewing »nd house-
hold work generally, and during the past year a cooking class
has been maintained ; the matron, in addition to her regular
duties, giving instruction twice a week in plaiti cookery.
KOJf - ATTK H I> A SC E.
I would call the attention of the Board to the fact thai
though our attendance has largely increased over that of pre-
vious years, yst only a email per cent, of those entitled to re-
ceive their education here are at present enrolled as pupils. I
quote from my last report: "The principal reason for this (the
non-attendance of the deaf and the blind children), is that un-
der onr present laws tlie attendance of pupils entirely depends
on the desire of their parents and guardians to have them edu-
cated, as well as on their ability to pay their traveling ex-
penses to and from the Institute.
"Tbe apathy with which many parents regard the question
of their children's education, is appalling. This is due to a
great extent to the deeper and more sympathetic affection for
the afflicted ones, bin it is a serious mistake. And, as it is an
acknowledged fact that every lined neated Mind or deaf person
is practically dependent upon tb* public, and, in the case of
the deaf, without moral responsibility, it becomes the duty of
the State, for its own protection, if from no other motive, to
enact laws requiring parents and guardians of such children to
allow them to attend the Institute, or otherwise provide for
" And, further, the Slate should employ an agent who should
canvass the cut in- Stale and see thai every blind or deaf child
id receiving educational advantages : and where it is found
that their education is being neglected, conduct them to tbe
"This matter is not at ail analagoii* to that of tu iking at-
tendance at the public schools compulsory, for the average
child, who is possessed of all his faculties, cat* make Ids way in
the world in an humble sphere, without tbe knowledge ordina-
rily obtained al school, but the blind or deaf child is wholly
dependent for his livelihood on the trade which can only be
learned at a school specially adapted to his peculiar needs.
"The question is one of the gravest importance, and on the
action of your honorable Board and the State Legislature, de-
pends not only the mental and physical training, but the moral
salvation of nearly two hundred of the afflicted children of our
Tbe expense of the canvass of the State, and bringing to the
school a large number of the children, need not be very great.
An annual expenditure of tive or six hundred dollars per an-
num during the next four or tive years, would undoubtedly be
sufficient to gather within our walls the greater part of the
deaf and the blind children in the State, who are now growing
up in ignorance, and many of them in vice.
There have been several changes in the corps of officers.
Mrs. R. K. Terrell, who acted as^teacher during the latter part
of 1886 and 188T, resigned and was elected matron in place of
Mies E. M. Eppes, who resigned October 1st, 1887. On the
same date Miss Kate King resumed her place in tbe Institute
as teacher, and is still with us. Last April Miss Elizabeth
Laughead was added to our corps of teachers. In January
last the duties of matron becoming loo laborious for one per-
son, Miss L. M. Peckham was chosen as assistant. She re-
signed soon after, and Miss Dora Watson acceptably tilled the
place till the end of the school year. In February of the pres-
ent year Mr. James A. Marshall was elected as boys' attend-
ant, which office he still holds.
During 1887 we had considerable sickness among our pupils,
which was directly attributable to malarial iiiHuenceK, emaua-
line; from several stagnant ponds near the Institute. These
hav« since been filled or d famed, since whin there has been no
serious 3ickness in the school.
Thanks are due the Times-Union and the good people of
Jacksonville for an abundance of Christmas gift* and money to
To little Gibbs White, of Cedar Key, who wanted Santa
Claus to take her share of gifts to the deal and blind children
at St. Augustine.*
To the Rev. C. C. McLean, Mr. O. IX Seavey, Mr. Bowman
and others of St. Augustine, who contributed liberally to the
To Mrs. J. Gummell, to whoso generosity the children owe
a delightful day spent on North Beach, and the subscription
price of several periodicals.
To Mr. M. R. Bean, for free transportation to and from South
To the Southern Espresa Company, and the J. St. A. & IT.
U. Railroad Company for free carriage of Christmas boxes.
The following named papers have also been received free
during the past two years :
Tbc Florida-Times L'uion . published at Jacksonville, Fin.
News-Herald " "
H jrldian " Tallahassee, "
St. Johns Weekly and Cbroniule " St. Aujrustlnc "
Mute's Ctironiele " Columbns, O.
Deaf Mule Voice " Jockton, Hiss.
Deaf MuleBullelln " Frurterirk, Md.
Mate's Companion " Faribault, Mlmi.
8 ilcut Observer " Knosvllle, Tenn.
Mule Rans. -r " Dallas. Texas.
Juvenile BtDger " "
Kansas Star " Olftthe, Kan.
Tablet " Romney, W. v*.
DeaT Hate Times " Delavan, Wis.
Pabk Tebreix, Principal.
St. Augdstlne, Fla., Dec. 31st, 1888.
STATE AGRICCLTORAt, AXD INDUSTBIAL COL LEG K.
The State Agricultural College, located at Lake City, Colum-
bia county, has had its impediments and hindrance* common to
all institutions of higher education during these five years of
its young life ; but I have reasons now to believe that the
crisis is passed, and that the College will move gradually on
its way of blessing to our young men. Prejudice and false-
hood must give way before demonstrated truth and actual ex-
perience, and the people will see for themselves that all is
beiug done which can be honorably done to give the State and
her young men the very best possible opportunity for higher
culture. While it is designed to give a thorough literary and
scientific course at this College, it is also determined that the
best opportunity shall be given (or a full course in theoretical
and practical agriculture and horticulture, with full instruction
as to field, grove and orchard ; also a full course in mechanic
trades or the essential points in them as relates to general tool
craft, construction ami ornamentation, so that when a student
leaves the College versed and learned in the books', and in
science and mathematics, he will carry with him a knowledge
of the very practical side of busy life, which will qualify him
better to meet all ol" its demands and cause birn to realize the
value of the knowledge possessed by the great army of skilled
toilers in the country.
A military training and discipline is also given to every
Student, engrailing apou the lite and character system and
method in every undertaking, teaching implicit and honorable
obedience to vested authority.
The College is admirably equipped and furnished, and is in
every respect a school inviting to the parents of sous to whom
they desire to have imparted a College education. Parents or
(Undents may select either course — the literary alone, or that
with the agricultural or industrial, or the agricultural alone, or
that with the industrial, according to the desire or ability to
take these or any of them. All must take the military in-
struction, as from that comes the discipline of the school.
Tuition at this College is also free of any charge, and the
cost of the living of the students by a system of messing or
college management has been reduced to about ten dollars a
month, so that the coot of an education in the College has been
reduced to a minimum, while all is under the eye of the Presi-
dent and faculty.
While this is not, nor can be, a religions or sectarian school ,
if, is the constant care and desire of the President to lead the
mind of the students toward God as the creator and benefactor
of the human race, and that '* the whole duty of man is to
fear God and kepp His commandments.' 1 To this end uusec-
tarian devotional exercises are held as opening exercises every
day, so that while the mind is being developed the morals of
the student is also looked after and guarded. It will not b«"
many years before Florida will have a college comparing favor-
ably with any institution of ihe same class in the country. It
is supplied with an excellent corps of instructois in its faculty —
gentlemen of high and broad culture, devoted to their profes-
sion and gentlemanly honor, and with these admirable and
essential qualities they are earnestly striving to endow the
youths submitted to their training.
Mechanic Art Hall, the work-shop of the College, was built
during the va&ition last summer, is a large commodious build-
ing, and is supplied with work benches, felts of wood working
tools, lathes, jig-saws and many other mechanical appliances
adapted to the first years' course in the mechanic arts. The
instructor is admirably adapted to his novel aud peculiar field of
instruction, and is doing an excellent, work. Every student is
taking this course of instruction, and it is a pleasant scene to
see this large work-shop, .50x90 te.et, with from forty to sixty
stalwart boys with their long aprons upon them, sawing, turn-
ing, chiseling, nailing, mortising anil fitting various construct-
ive joints, developing and equipping both brain and brawn,
resulting in an intensely practical education.
All parents, guardians, and friends of education are made
welcome when desirous of inspecting and examining for them-
selves, and are earnestly invited. There are now fix by pupils
enrolled and many more expected to eater during the next
The two Seminaries, State Institutions, one being designed
for that part of the State east of the Suwannee river, and one
for that part west of the same river, the former is located at
Gainesville, and the latter at Tallahassee, the capital of the
State. Both of these seminaries are excellent schools and af-
ford a full academic course. Each of these schools are designed
lor the pupils' from all over the division of the State for which
they have been located, and the Presidents of both are ex-
ceedingly desirous that the people alt over these districts
shou hi avail themselves of the admirable opportunity offered,
and attend upon the exercises. The presence of the dread
pestilence in the eastern part of the State, p -even ted the regu-
lar timely opening of the seminary at Gainesville. Col. E. P.
Cater, President, writes, however, that he is assured of a
good and prosperous opening for the spring term, beginning
Jan. 2d. 1^89, and has engaged sixty pupils, representing a
"majority of the counties composing the district in which it is
located. This is an excellent school, designed by its manage-
ment and faculty to give a highly practical and useful educa-
tion, I regret I. have not a full and complete report from its
Board of Visitor?.
The seminary for the west opened very nearly at the regular
time, and now has fifty students under the excellent presidency
of Col. G. il, Kilgar, assisted by an aide corps of teachers, and
though ihe roll ot pupils is not as large by several hundred as
it should be from so large a district and so popnlous, yet I
doubt if a more earnest, studious and admirably deported
school can he found in the South. The course of study has
been fixed high, and is designed to be a thorough course. I
refer to the report of the President, Col. Edgar, for a more 'de-
tailed report of the work, and the wants and necessities :
Tallahassee, Fla., Dec. 3 1st, 1888.
Hon. A,, J. Russell, Stale Superintendent pitMic Instruction . '
Dear Sir : — I hereby submit a brief report of this institution
for the year closing to-day.
The reorganization of the Seminary, effected in September,
1S87, and outlined in my first annual report, has been fruitful
of good results to the institution. The elevation of the stand-
ard and the extension of the course of instruction, necessitated
the rejection of thirty or more applicants for admission during
the academic year ending June 8th, 1883; but the seven ty-dix
students matriculated were quite as many as the faculty could
thoroughly drill in the subjects :,o be reviewed and studied to
conform lo the new regime. Indeed, at the intermediate ex-
aminations, in February, it was I'ouud necessary to divide the
lower high school class and to employ an additional teacher, to
enable the (acuity to round up the work of the year in a satis-
I am glad lo be ahta en report that the progress oi a large
percnlage of the students was excellent, and that, some in each
class distinguished themselves by their persevering efforts, by
the grade of scholarship ibey attained, and by i!ieir exemplary
deportment both in and out of school. At the close of the ses-
sion, a gold medal was awarded by the Hoard of Education to
the student in eaofi class who attained tho highest average on
examination, and an additional golil medal was awarded by
Mr. K. W. Clarke, ot* Tallahassee, to the student who attained
the highest average in sun lies and deportment.
The work of tin* year was closed, 8th of June, by appropriate
public exercises in which the students, the President ot the
faculty, the President of the Board of Education, and the Go) -•
ernor of the tit tc participated, and the sentiment was general-
ly expressed that the result* attained were of the most satis-
factory character, in view of the obstacles necessary to be sur-
mounted in the reorganization of the institution.
O wing to the failure of not a few of the students to pass the
required examinations, ami to the scare produced in the sum-
mer and fall months by the prevalence of yellow fever in some
of the towns and cities in the eastern pin of the State, fewer
students have been matriculated this session thaD were matric-
ulated during the same period last year ; but it is hoped that
the number will be appreciably increased as the session pro-
gresses, and that through faithful teaching by the taoutty, and
the fostering care of the li »rd of E location and of the people,
the institution may steadily develon, and we long to make its
influence felt for good throughout the entire State.
The present corps of students is organized into four classes —
two high school and two collegiate.
In two mure years the institution will have the complement
of collegiate classes, and he prepared to graduate students in
both the scientific and literary courses usually taught in Ameri-
One. of the features of this year, ia the introduction of draw-
ing as one of the regular studies of each class. If the neces-
sary funds can be secured it is proposed to make drawing the
basis of a course -of industrial art for both sexes, which
without interfering with the scientific and classical training,
which experience has proven to be so essential to liberal cul-
ture, will develop the mind along the line of the muscles, so as
to enable the student to give material expression to his thoughts
and to gain a practical judgment of the arts of life, so often
wanting in cultured men, and yet so necessary to equip youth
for the exigencies of life.
I am glad to report that some much needed additions bare
recent); been made to the chemical apparatus, and that a few-
valuable reference books have been bought.
But the institution must have new buildings, more ample ap-
pliances and a larger facalty, to Garry oat the various objects
set forth in its charter and the plans of the honorable Board of
Education as to its development.
I earnestly invoke your aid and that of His Excellency, the
Governor of the Commonwealth, in the effort to secure the ne-
cessary funds from the legislature lo accomplish these ends.
Respectfully submitted, Geo, M. Edgar,
As is my custom, as soon as the schools were all closed for
the summer of this* year, I organized a series of county Insti-
tutes, providing a double corps of learned and experienced in-
structors, and notified the County Superintendents of time and
place, and held tli em in Gadsden at Quincy two weeks, in
Sumter at Wild wood one week, in Lake at Leesburg one week,
at Dade City for Ih-rnando and Pasco, at Mannville for Citrus
county, at Arcadia for DeSoto county, at Kissimmee for Oace-
ola county, it New Troy for Lafayette county, at Perry for
Taylor county, and at. Lake City, two weeks, for colored teach-
ers from all t:ounties, making eleven counties thus visited and
instructed. Full numbers of teachers, patrons, advanced pu-
pils and the people attended these Ii slilutes, and we feel as-
sured I hat much good was accomplished, and greater zeal in-
spired in every one, teacher and people. These Institutes have
universally been the most effective instrumentality in the hands
of the State Superintendent in awaking an interest and crea-
ting an enthusiasm in the minds and heart* of the people in
favor of popular education and the public school; and I earn-
estly hope the Legislature will see tne wisdom of continuing
the appropriation and of increasing it a few hundred dol-
lars. The cost of these Institutes for 1888 was $1 ,387.22,
vouchers for which are on file in this office and ready for ex-
A State Teachers' Institute was also held during the month
of March at DeFuntak Springs, at which a large number of
teachers were present and interchanged thought, query and
experience relating to the work, lectures upon special subjects
by prominent teachers were delivered and were then open for
discussion by the Institute. A more earnest, diligent and en-
quiring company of teachers it has never been my privilege to
see, and certainly the whole programme was voted as highly
interesting, edifying and instructive.
CONVENT] OX OF SUPERINTENDENTS.
A Convention of Connty Superintendents was called at the
same time and place, as required by law, and though only sev-
enteen counties were represented by their Superintendents, these
found much to interest and instruct them, their exchange of ex-
perience in the management and euperin tendency was inspiring
to some and encouraging to others. Some of the persona! experi-
ences of some of these in getting around their large counties,
the distances some would be required to travel on horseback or
on foot, after having visited all schools on the lines of railroads
and steamers, would make many a city Superintendent blnsh if
he had ever complained of his work or thought his tisk too se-
Our thanks are eminently due the railroads of the Stale for
the mere nominal rate of fare given the teachers and school offi-
cers, one-naif cent per mile each way, and to the officers of the
Chautauqua Association tor reduced cost of living while there
in atieiiauc>* upon the Institute. Had it not been f>r this liber*
ality we could not have had such an assembly.
INCH EASE is SCHOOLS.
It will he appropriate, as this year close* your adminisl ration
to show the increase ami growth of the Department of Educa-
tion ilitrinj; the years embraced in your term of office, embrac-
ing the years 1 885-1 888,- inclusive; it is as follows : The increase
in the number of youth of the school age (between 6 and 21
years) since the last school census is 39,00'), Recording to the
census taken this year, 1888, the census preceding being taken
in 188*. The increase in the number of schools for the four
years is 745. The increase in total attendance upon the schools
is 24,012, and in daily average attendance 17,249. The in-
crease in the amount an<l value of school property owned by
the various counties is $335,000. Steadily have neat and com-
fortable and welt furnished school buildings taken the place of
the loir home and uncomely building, ami in the cities and
towns very Urge, commodious and haudsonib buildings have
been erected and dedicated to the education of the youth.
In 1882 the Superintendent reported $33,532 as total amount
expended for school purposes. This amount may certainly be
raised $34,000 for counties not reporting at that time, which
would make the total $117,532. The total amount expended
for schools for 1888 is $484,110.23, making an increase of ex-
penditure of $366,678.23.
The increase in the Common School Fnnd ia equally grati-
fying. In 1882 it was $326,420. VI, for this year it ia $500,400,
showing an increase of $173,977.29. In 1884 there was distrib-
uted of the one mill tax $27,000 in round numbers, this year
there was distributed to the counties, according to the respect-
ive school population, $74,000 to round numbers, showing an
increase in the one mill tax laid by the Constitution of $47,000,
and this left $3:), 000 not distributed because not collected at
the time of distribution, but since paid in.
NCUHEB OF SCHOOLS, AC.
The number of schools opened and operated this year is
2,249, an increase ov^r 1887 of 145 schools. There are 2,413
teacher* employed, 1,793 white anil 020 negroes. The reason
for the disparity in uumbers is that the negro population is
centered about tile cities, towns and villages, ami in several
counties of the State there are not enough of them to form a
school, while the whites are largely engaged in farming and
are scattered through the counties, demanding many small
schools, while the negroes are gathered into large graded
It lias been a special effort on the part of the Stale Board of
Education to introduce this feature of practical educaliou into
the whole system, and I am glad to report, very considerable
success, a* already referred to at the State College. The Normal
Colleges, and many of the larger of the city and village schools
are giving earnest attention to this useful branch of a practical
education, giving to the children of the poor and those of mod-
erate circumstances, the advantage of the books, and also an
insight into the useful and honorable trades and mechanic
COXG RATU L ATI OX.
I can most assuredly congratulate the people of Florida on
the rapid growth of her public school system, and the usclul
features of her school work in leading her children to know
that there is not only utility in the trades, but that honor re-
sides in their pnrsuit.
There are 137 colleges and private schools reported by the
County Superintendents of the State, all of which are enjoying
a wholesome patronage.
Notable among these are Rollin's College, located at Winter
Park, and though not sectarian, under Congregational auspices,
DeLand University at DeLand, Baptist auspices, Florida Con-
ference High School and College at Leesburg, M. E. C. South ;
St. John's River Conference College, at Orange City, M. E.
Church, and many others of excellent character.
REFRBEXCE TO TABLES.
For a more detailed knowledge* of the school work, the finan-
cial relations, the number of teachers employed, the number of
each sex, the number of those holding first class certificates,
the school census of 1888, and many other important matters,
I respectfully refer yon to the tables carefully prepared and
following this report..
I have had printed in my report, the full and complete reg-
ulations carefully prepared hy myself, under the requirement
of the law and approved and adopted by the State Board of
Education, and promulgated throughout the State, ami call the
attention to all interested. In examining theBe it will be set it
that the State Board stresses the matter of thoroughly teach-
ing the children the awful evils of the drink habit and the
use of narcotics, and School Hoards and County Superinten-
dents and teachers are called upon to see to it that tins is done,
they also press the matter of industrial training iu all the
schools as far as practicable and at all times.
BLANK FOEMS DISTBIBLTBD.
I have for the year 1888- 1880 mailed or expressed the fol-
lowing blank forms, required by the law, to I he various coun-
ties as their County Superintendents have required them, 1,500
copies of the School Law, 1,772 School Registers, 10,095
Teacher's Monthly reports, 2,283 Teacher's Contracts, 5:j:i
Second-Class Teacher's Certificates, 589 Third-Class Certifi-
cates, 425 Blank Appointments of Trustees, and 475 Blank Ac-
ceptances of same.
AEBOR DAY OBSERVANCE.
In cheerful and profitable compliance with your Proclama-
tion, setting apart the eighth day of February, 1888, as Arbor
Day, and inviting all the schools to join heartily in suitable
exercises and the planting of trees, hardy herbs, vines and
Dowers, I have the honor and great pleasure to report a deep
interest in the observance of the day, on the part of the State
institutions and public schools, as well as the patrons and
friends of the schools.
I am greatly pleased, and am sure you will enjoy the same
experience, to be able to report the great interest man i tested
in the recurrence of tbia delightful and very profitable observ-
ance, on the part of all the people ; they realize the truly ed-
ucational and ennobling influence exerted as well as the profit-
able effects and are desirouB for a continuance and permanency
of the day, with its delightful exercises. The following state-
ment wilt be of interest:
450 schools are reported as participating, 21 counties report*
ing 18,542 pupils taking part in the exercises, 4,408 pat-
rons and friends present, 7,490 trees planted.
The following State institutions are reported as taking ear-
nest interest in the day. and its work and observance: The
State Agricultural College at Lake City, the West Florida
Seminary at Tallahassee, the East Florida Seminary at Gaines-
ville, the State Normal School for While Teachers at DeFu-
niak Springs, and the Blind and Deaf Mute Institute at St,
The exercises, as reported by the various superintendents,
consisted of short lectures by teachers and friends upon the
importance of the trees iu their varied relations to life, composi-
tions and recitations by the pupils, songs and glees, all of which
were calculated to uplift those who participated, and to en-
Ligliteo the mind and enlarge the affections, ennoble the senti-
ments and inspire the sympathies ; it is a universal desire that
the day be perpetuated.
I cannot close this report without expressing my warm ap-
proval of those with whom I have only been a co-worker, the
County Superintendents without exception, the Boards of Pub-
lic Instruction, the teachers and the people have all heartily
sustained me and cheerily entered the work with me, and for
them all I cherish the highest sentiments of esteem and regard,
and to your Excellency for the irnfailiiig support, encourage-
ment and sustenance you have given me.
A. J. RUSSELL,
State Superintendent Public Instruction.
PREPARED BT THE STATE SUPERINENDRNT OF PUBLIC IN8TRTJC.
TION AND ADOPTED BT THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION,
Regulation 1. — Qualifications. — Persons, to be eligible
to appointment to offices in this department mast be wefl en-
dorsed as possessing, substantially, the following qualifica-
"They are personally known to ns as citizens of good moral
character, upright, responsible, possessing a fair education,
and desirous of extending the benefits of free public instruc-
tion to all classes of youth. As officers, they will be found
competent, impartial and faithful in the performance of their
duties. For these reasons we commend them for appointment."
Regulation 2. — School Trustees will be governed, in the
general management of their affaire, under the directions of the
Board of Public Instruction of the county.
Regulation 3. — School Tkcstees. — One good, competent
Trustee, who will take a lively interest in the affairs of the
school, is sufficient. When the responsibility is divided among
several, they will be more likely to neglect the work than one
man, when the duty is laid upon him. Trustees are to be
recommended by the patrons or the school, but the County
Superintendent may exercise some discretion in nominating
TIME OF ISSUING CEETTFieATES.
Regulation 4.— Although a Board of Public Instruction
may examine teachers and grant certificates, at any time, or
authorize the County Superintendent to do so, which may con-
tinue in force in the county for one year from date, yet it may
be found desirable to fix upon certain days and places at which
this particular duty will be attended to. Certificates may be
issued to expire within the year, to correspond with the times
of holding the meetings. By such an arrangement, both the
board and the teachers would be accommodated.
Ample notice should be given of all such meetings by the
County Superintendents, so that every teacher, or person de-
■irous of teaching, may have the opportunity of preparing for
the ex ami nation.
Regulation 5. — Teacher's Certificates op the First.
Class will be granted by the State Superintendent of Public
Instruction to eminently successful teachers of the second
class who, on examination, answer 85 per cent, of the ques-
tions submitted in the branches usually taught in high
Graduates of normal schools may receive First- CI ass Certifi-
cates without examination, who hold diplomas from colleges of
undoubted reputation and other colleges in which Pedagogics
are taught. No exception will he made to this regulation ex-
cept the State Superintendent shall have strong and satisfactory
reasous for the same.
Regulation 6. — Third and Second-Class Certificates will be
issued by the County Boards of Public Instruction based upon
the following :
Any person, to be considered a teacher in the meaning of
the school law, or entitled to compensation for services or any
of the privileges and immunities of a teacher, must, at the time
of performing the services or claiming the immunities, hold a
teacher's certificate unimpaired by suspension, revocation or
Eligibility. — A candidate for teaching, to be eligible to an
examination, must produce satisfactory evidence of being of
strictly temperate habits, and maintaining a good moral char-
1st. To be able to read intelligibly from any school reader in
common use, and properly leach the same.
2d. To spell correctly the words of any ordinary sentence.
3d. To be able to write well and teach the same.
4th. To solve readily the questions involving the rules of
arithmetic, to square root, and to explain the principles on
which their solution depends.
5th. To have a general knowledge of geography : as the lo -
cation and boundaries of continents; the relative positions of
the principal countries, oceans, seas and rivers ; the boundaries
and capitals of the United States aud of the several States and
Territories, and the counties and rivers of Florida.
6th. To have a general knowledge of the history of the Uni-
ted States and of the State of Florida
7tb, To have a good, practical knowledge of school organ!"
ration, classification, management and discipline, and of the
arts of interesting youth and imparting instruction.
Remark. — No certificate will be issued to applicants who, on
examination, fail to answer 75 per cent, of the question sub-
mitted in the above branches tor a Third Class Certificate.
The following for a Second Class Certificate:
Second Class, — In addition to the foregoing'qualifications,
a candidate for a Second Class Certificate must, on examina-
tion, be able —
1. To read with ease and accuracy.
2. To write a plain, free hand, and teach the same.
3. To spell correctly.
4. To solve readily the questions in any practical arithmetic
in common use.
5. To have a good knowledge of geography.
V 6, To be familiar with the English Grammar, so as to apply
its principles correctly in composing, spelling and punctuating
a letter, or any ordinary sentence.
7. To have a good knowledge of the outlines of general his-
tory, and especially that of the United States and of Florida.
8. To be acquainted with the elements of book keeping.
9. To understand and be able to explain the principles which
underlie the branches taught.
10. To understand well the proper organization, classifica-
tion, management and discipline of a school, the improved
methods of teaching, and possess good aelf-c onjjpl.
No applicant will be awarded a certificate who, on examina-
tion, fails to answer 80 per cent, of the questions proposed in
the above branches.
Regulation 7, — The State Board of Education are deeply
impressed with the fact that the large majority of the child ren-
in attendance upon the public schools are the children of the
poorer people, and will fill the large and important classes of
farmers, workmen, mechanics and artisans of the State, and
that to impart to them only the knowledge to be derived from
the school books, excellent and necessary as it is, will but illy
equip them for the sphere of life to which in Providence and
circumstances they are very sure to be called, are still more
impressed with the necessity of imparting to them some know-
ledge (to the boys specially) of the useful and necessary tools
and implements used in the arts and trades, and to the girls
some training in sewing, cookery and housewifery in general
hy simple illustrative lectures or talks upon their use, and the
general principles involved, so that a taste may be cultivated
for these very useful and important vocations in life, and some
knowledge imparted of them, but mainly to impress them with
a true and proper conception of the honor and dignity of hon-
est labor. County Superintendents and Boards of Public In-
struction are urgently an rl specially called upon to give their
earnest attention to this very important feature of school work
Regulation 8. — The evil of intemperance abroad in the land
demands the attention of all true men and women everywhere,
that its tide may be turned back, and the great social evil
abated, therefore the State Board of Education calls upon all
County Superintendents and County Boards of Public Instruc-
tion to see that the pupils are from time to time, as the regu-
lar work and duties of the school will permit, impressed with
the evils flowing from the use of intoxicants and narcotics
morally, physically, socially and financially, so that a whole-
ijome conception of ihe evil and ruin wrought by them may be
had by every pupil.
Regulation 9. — As the spirit of the school law clearly in-
tends to prevent entanglement at all possible by contracting
or bargaining among members of the County Boards of Public
Instruction, therefore the State Board of Education would
most earnestly admonish all members of these Boards to en-
tirely refrain from the employment of persons in any manner
who are nearly allied to them by by the ties of relationship, spe-
cially of a close nature, and would especially suggest to thoge
who in the past have been thus situated to free themselves at
onue of the entanglement, and tbat in the future no one will
be recommended for appointment in any relation in the school
work who contemplates such employment.
A very considerable part of the dissatisfaction which does
Hxist in some school neighborhoods is created by this condi-
tion of affairs, and the general cause of education in the State
must be relieved of it.
Regulation 10. — All teachers should of their own purpose
seek from time to time to advance the class of their certifi-
icates by diligent and persistent study and the constant read-.
ang of the best journals of school work, and books treating
methods, discipline and government of the school, and so pass
Irom the lowest to the highest grade of certificate, and carry
with it the increased capacity for the true work of the school
County Superintendents discovering a disposition on the
part of certain teachers to remain content witli an y certificate
they may be fortunate enough to obtain, exhibiting no desire
to rise higher or to become better qualified for their important
work, should at once report the same to the Boards of Pnblic
Instruct ion and recommend their removal from the corps of
teachers in the county.
The authority for mating these Regulations will be found in
the School Law Pamphlet, pages 7 and 8 t section 13, clauses
5th and 11th.
Taelb No. 1.
Number of Col-
ored Cltlkl ran
^ V —
Tablk NO. 3.
Colombia . , . .
Wad ad en
La fay oil e.
1,983.04 ' HI
1 ."lit, !■•».'. Ill
Leon. | 2,008,413 00 3
Levy 1,101 Mono s
Libert)' ' 2»,01200 2
Lake.... s.724.;ji; o|
Madison.. l.aOO.lmi oo
Manatee | i,U;,w» 40 1 4 ' 5
Monroe 1.401,468 «ii 4
N««1UI 2.684.3*1 00 1
Orange .... ' 4.052.5:.; 00
Oitr-eok. 1.087.806 oil 1
Putnam 4,130,603 oo!
1'ast-i 054.329 001
fit. John* 2.2&o,87u 00
Suwannee. . .
fa), 800.871141 1
$21,970 73 1 $1,769 87
7. SIT 74
... 4-. ILi
4.. r i7rl 08
14 BH H
15. o w no
340 00 1
2S3 81 1
1,404 07 [
1.952 77 i
git 4 ;
• 790 20
1, W« 00 1
2,714 40 i
7, one So
$32,084 10 $74,807 70 $400,378*4
2 600 00
■J, 838 42
T A 11 LB No. 3.
a " j
lit, 41 XtiJM
2,91 1 (XI
- 5 i
5 3 2
4BS Si 1
Suwannee. . .
Table No. 4.
Table So. 5— C«ssr» or School Population, isS3.
; j : -
Hamilton. . . .
4 1 01
LIST OF SOPEHIMEIDEKS OF COMMON SCHOOLS.
POST OFF J CX.
W. N. SHEATS
JOSEPH L. HILL
F. M. ATKINS..
E. A. HARRISON
E. E. RAWLIN
E. tf. PERSONS
ALBERT M. FIELD
H, E. CARLETON
Green Cove Spring.
WM. M. LED WITH
N. B. COOK
C. E. L. ALLISON
GEO. J. GRAHAM
U». J. R. TEMPLE
L W BUCHHOLZ
WM. if: FARKiOR. .
HER NAN DC
J. A. WALKER
D. C. KxNTZ
N W EPPE*
R. L. WILLIAMS
E. M. GRAHAM
MARION L. PAYNE
R. M. RAY
GEO. W. CURTIS
A. W. MIZELL.
JOnN R. KELLY
N. 8 C. PERKINS
R. F. FORBES.....
L. L- CHARLES
Craw ford ville.
Table No. 6.
Lift of Teachers holding First-class Certi Scales, Term 5 jenra from date of
Win Li'iia Marios
n B Wnlioii
J B Wneli
J M Sttfwwl
I) Y Hoyte
F W Hirtletle
W G JoIiufod
A I! »:irt!
Mr? M»rj U WunbitigluD.,.
Mrs A A Washington
Tlifn er -
.-Mrs H K Ingram
Mi*t> Louisa Tucker. J
C H L'mird
Abner V Ol linger ...
A W Peek
-Roht M Ray
J H ttirardr.tu _
•u v F-ikci *r
K II fiilison
R V Graham %\.
His a Biker
K M Brldgi-n
Knmci sen Hunt
W R Temple
W K Vaughn
Cora CbaBC •
Fauulc M Tborne.
J li Lyman
Henry E Graham ;
Florence Mcllraine. . ...
Will S Pitch
T Ho] I logs worth
Wm B Catbcart
Geo W Eatherly
i John P Patterson,
MrsE J Wilson
Ml«s Laura McKlnlay
Laura E Dyer
Geo W Housioun (colored)
--j-F L Shl]'Wortb
Mies Ida Wood
Mlas Julia A Edwards.
Emily M Blackmail
Fannie Henderson ,
Mrs W K TUomas
Miss A u iiia LeBarron
Annie M Hardv
POST OFFICE. CoUSTT,
Cedar Key a.
Kali gel I lit::.
Pen &a coin.
Mount PI ua aim.
Craw ford vl He,
Brooks vi lie.
f ii&i ge.
< I range.
Sum I it.
r^pi 10. '884.
*ipt HI, iWt
xpt in, ]f*H,
r-Bi-l 11'. 1**4.
PeUI 12. 188*.
S. pi 1-- IW**,
Oct 1*, 1884.
Oct 14, 884.
Oct 14, 1*S,
Nov aw. 1884.
No* a, i-*q.
Nov SO, 188*.
N. v25, 1884,
(JO S IHHrt.
Oil 8, l
Oct 10, 1885.
Oct 10, 1885.
Oct 10, \m\
No? 3, ISM.
(Nov 8, 188.*,
Nov ,••:, 1885.
Dec 4. 1NS5.
J n 1, i«NI
Jan 3, ISNfl,
.full 9, IK8B
Feb II, l*8fl.
Pel. 11, 188«.
F. b 11, 1880,
June lt>, 188P,
Aug 2, 1888.
Aug 2, 1*86
■»ug 10, 1886.
Nov 10, 1886.
Nov 11, 1888.
Nov 11, 1B80.
Nov 12, 188f>
Nov 20. 1886.
Dec 30. la-a.
Dec 24, 1888.
April 81, 1887.
April 21, 1887.
March 33, 1887.
Maicb II, 1887
March «, 1887. -
March U. 1887.
March SB, 1887.
Mareh 2», 1887.
March 26, 1887.
Mirch 25, 1887.
March 85, 1887.
Marcb 25, 1887
Marcti 25. 1887.
M»v 3, 1887.
April 28, IS87.
L'st of Teacher* Ht.ItHlUf Fh>t-cl*«« rertllicft'es — Cotitlnu- d.
Ellen F Mmphy
V. J Iti'li!
Florida A -in ul
B uln Budwte
Mr- Amine \1 Orico ..
Hunter H W Iberry. .*-f.
Win Ur* Woodward
II D II ■wru).
Mis* i 'oiirlney W Me ide
Mis> LeUaO Burnett
Wri Sir ill K M SeinMer
.1 II IH « mend Y ..
spj l K-rii.. *::
John M F Ernriii
B VV HeUviision
M *■■ Mary C Ryder , . , .
MtM Nellie W tvil.nu. . .
\nni-i B Kins .'
H W l> luillv
(JruilTL' P Olell
-H-y Frank P**ca. ....,..£".
M C Ul-ii I.
ir<i H Wiirrhier J.
Mr- E 8 Wnrriner
R.ilit t* P.Smrle, 1)1.1)
A F Bisimlt in-i .■
Kbn l.i'i'ft A lVooien
Hr-l H Wallace
S H Rilev
Henr? K Mei'ilitb
Hi** "Cnl«T Zelnler
J S Curcton
W H Bdlton..
Mi" Ciirric June Abbnlt
J 11 Powell .,
Mint* A unit; Hafee ••
Ml-w l.-.iiisi O'Brli-n ..
C P Snmmer.itl
S Neville Thompson
Mt>n Amijr SwearliureTi..,.
M W Lewaej
-T M b< ■ ivncy. ,,•,•,.,..,.•••
Miin P.m'iiie KuL'ee
*]i L HnlMfwm
■ Mi«»M N Look
Mi-s H-lk' II Willimnn
Miss Omens Thomas
W B Thnmn
Ren hen W-tldron
Irvi II Wftklron . . .
Miss M May Taylor,
N P Collin*
n"(irjri! g SUlilrt
Klcm G Torrey
J L Hi.llinswurib.....
\|i»l:icliic id i.
HI (>i mi Held.
Pud seen! ft.
Frii- k] in.
I J 11V il .
Hit n undo.
Suit. i n nee.
Jaly ». 1**7.
A»!TU8t 18 I.SI7
August I^K l>*8T.
.lii-iucl 19. 1S<.
Aau'U-.t '■£*. 18S7.
Aiurii 1 19. 18*7.
3epi 4, 1SST.
Attipist L»l> 18S7.
rteoi '.'1. 1M8X
-it-lit SI, l**7.
Junt^ ir>, tv 1 *".
Dee. 23, l*S7.
ii t h.tsJ 1X87.
Sfo» i'.», iK
Doe -'. 18817
i Itt IS, !Sf7.
Ck'l 15, 1S«7,
Oct 11'. 18OT.
Oct 19. IHtMT.
ue I t9,48H7.
ii,.; 81, 1887.
(i.-i iJil, 1H87
Oct 81. I**7.
Oct 81. 1887.
Oft 38, 18V7.
<Jct a9, 18H7.
Oct 39, 1887.
Dec SI, 1687.
Oct 8, 1.h-i7.
Feti t, iSB'j
April 8, 18St.
pri I 8. 18.8S.
A|iril 8. 1888.
A|.til 8, 1-m
Ajtri' *■ ,rts4
April 8, 188S.
i-.'i. IS, 1808.
Mnv 38. 1888.
April It), 1888.
M iv 88, 18,^.
Mnv ;», 1888.
Jiii'h- 18. 1888.
June 89, 18881
July 18, 188a
July 14, 1R88,
July 14, 1888.
Jalf 14, 1S88.
M.iv 1, 1S.*S.
Hu 1. 1*88.
August 1, 1888.
. JuWdJl. 1S88
IMiL'ust a, 18.8H.
I August 4, 18«.
Lint <if Teichere O-ilttlnfj First-class Ccrllfica'ei — Coollriucd,
1. W B<icli»bf Tampa.
W H ."atnuier-ill.
Mr« Mamie U Tliom is Marlmiim.
jame* M Owens Mm i I la .
Paiiiite F Owens Matillii.
i H Tuite. Peameola.
HenirrO Lnwson Ki*»imm , e.
Jcia A. Evans Muss riluff.
J H Bailey Pjil.itksi
J W i'utiiiti O.iklund.
J M Bheitor Odin.
Miss Alice M Fatherly Lnltfwood.
I, B Vtul en Piilatfck.
Miss Genu Stewurf nilton.
W li Atllsurt Mill- ii.
Mr? M.nv M.trt Allison Ap j spk«.
Mr H F VVilker Auburn dale.
Wnt T BitinrrmiiQ
R K Emitter Aatituuln.
Mt>R Mait^ieS Underwood.. Brmiksville.
- J111.I.1I1 V«T:I.... UemHil.
Win Hollo way La Crosae.
W J Borden ., Oxford.
F UBekiont Kiteimmee.
8iiti \L -dik-nti Klutmmee.
D W Wren B -How.
C IV II n simian Ur.in^e CitT.
^JHK.ilkc ■ enter Hill.
f W F V.pciHP Birlow.
.1 IV Moure ...,Sr... I\il:iika.
Mrs A E Kuisr Bagdad.
Miss Lizzie Itiiiisey. toper,
M i M J ul 1 1 Mi rusey jasper.
A J Wood rViliiika.
J S Freeman I'al itki.
Miss Urt» Oli.ud Center Hill.
Wui H Kern
Mrs Alice? I) Kern
Win T Lata*!
Mi*- Mamie B Riyr.
MtM MettOTM Murphy
Mis* Ruby Brooks.
A H 11 iv. tier
Mr- U B Al-sunil r. .
Sarnh t,e! ind Carter. liiiaiwille.
D F M Pruvenee BartOW.
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D-i --'I. 1894
J in -J I
Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Education,
Washington, 1), ft, Xovember 8, 1888.
Tlie S&norable the Secretary of the Interior,
Washington, D. C:
SrR : I Lave the honor to forward herewith a monograph upon the
History of Education in Florida, by Prof. George Gary Bush, Ph. D.
This is one of the series of Contributions to American Educational
History, edited by Prof. Herbert B. Adams, Ph. D., of Johns Hopkins
University, the preparation of which you approved by your letter of
March 29,' 1888.
This monograph, though written to accompany the series of histor-
ical papers upon higher education "in the United States, treats not alone
of higher education in Florida. Its purpose is to set forth, hi addition,
the growth and development of -the cchool system of the State, and to
emphasize particularly the rapid advance made in all educational matters
during the past decade.
Beginning with the earliest organized efforts to furnish instruction
uuder the auspices of educational societies, and the attempt to intro-
duce the system of Fellenberg, a review is given of the journals of the
Legislature previous to the adoption of the Constitution of 186.'', and
such facts are presented as bear upon the subject of education. The
legal organization of the school system, as it existed previous to the
Civil War, is thus shown, together with the history of the school lands
donated to the State, and the funds by which the schools were in part
or wholly sustained.
The point is made that the early legislation with reference to schools,
though effected largely by men of wealth, was for the benefit princi-
P^Mof the children of the poor.
Wtention is called to the establishment in 1852 of the first public
school to be sustained by a tax levied upon individual property, and
(though no uniform system had been secured) to the great improvement
made during this decade in the condition of the schools.
4 HISTOBT OF EDUCATION IN FLORIDA.
The War era passed, the elaborate system of common schools provided
for in the State Constitution of 1868, and by legislative acts in 1869, is
reviewed at length, and the substance of these provisions embodied in
The favor with which the system was apparently received, and the
rapidity with which the State board and the county boards were organ-
ized and entered upon their duties, are touched upon, and then a his-
tory is given of the development of the system, of the opposition which
it later encountered,*of the lack of competent teachers, as also of school
buildings and school funds, until an era of brighter promise is reached.
From that period, less than a decade ago, the progress made in public
school education has been most satisfactory, and it is shown that the
aggregate results will bear favorable comparison with the educational
statistics of any of the States. Statistics are given which place in con-
trast the earlier and later years, and exhibit the rapid increase in the
number of schools, iu pupils, and funds. Mention is made of the valua-
ble aid rendered to the State by annual contributions from the Peabody
Fund and other agencies organized for like purposes.
The duties of the State Superintendent of lust met ion and of the
Board of Education, of the county boards and county superintendent,
of the loca I trustees, and the teachers employed in the common schools
are defined, and the relations they sustain to one another indicated.
The admirable work done by Northern societies, by the State, and
by the agent of the Peabody Fund for the education of the.freedmen,
from the year in which the War closed until schools for colored chil-
dren were placed upon an equal footing witii the other schools of the
State, is traced at some length, while the eagerness of the freedmen to
learn aud the progress they have made is noted, and a history of some
of the more important schools established for them is briefly given.
During the past five years nothing else has done so much to elevate
the standard of education in Florida as the efficient aid rendered by
teachers' institutes aud normal schools. These instrumentalities, which
owe their success, in large measure, to the earnest labors and wise
supervision of the present Superintendent of Public Instruction, are
described and their importance to the existing educational system ac-
Eeferenoe is nest made to the academies established before the War,
and to the present condition of the high schools, which, with a single
exception, do not compare favorably with schools of like name in the
older States. Ah
With a statement of the public lauds received froih the N^^i-d
Government for the establishment of "two seminaries of learning"
and an agricultural college and university, the paper takes up the his-
tory of secondary and higher education. This begins with an act of
the Legislature in 1851, in which it is provided that "Two seminaries of
learning shall be established, one upon the east, the other upon the
LETTER OP THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 5
west aide of the Suwannee Biver. " These seminaries were located, the
one at Ocala (later removed to Gainesville), the other at Tallahassee,
and long remained the only public high schools in Florida. Historical
sketches of these institutions are introduced, showing the work accom-
plished by them, their financial resources, the condition of the academic
buildings and grounds, their educational appliances, and the character
and attainments of their boards of instruction.
Ho public institution of Florida has passed through so many vicissi-
tudes or suffered so much for the lack of friends as the State Agricult-
ural College. The endeavor has been made in this monograph to present
with impartiality the facts of itB history, including the acts of various
Legislatures with reference to its location, establishment, board of man-
agement, and finances ; and evidence is adduced to show that it is now
well worthy of the patronage of the State, possessing as it does an able
and energetic faculty, commodious buildings and grounds, collections in
natural history, mineralogy, and geology, a well-equipped laboratory,
an experimental station furnished with excellent appliances for the study
of agriculture, and a manual training school, which affords practice in
working in wood and metal and the best facilities for draughting and de-
signing, A page is devoted to the Florida University, with its meteoric
appearance and brief history.
The remainder of the paper is devoted to a description of the colleges
founded and sustained by various religious societies, to which are added
a brief mention of the State Institute for the Blind and Deaf, and ref-
erences to certain schools wboso aim is to furnish a good secondary edu-
- Of the denominational colleges, Rollins College at Winter Park and
De Land University at De Land, are placed in the first rank of the higher
educational institutions of the State, and their history, as herewith pre-
sented, shows tbat in the quality of their work, the devotion of friends,
and increasing resources, promise is given of a successful future.
I beg leave to recommend the publication of this paper as a Circular
of Information, and to subscribe myself,
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
N. H. K. Dawson,